There as a new study demonstrating an association between fiber intake and measures of lung function.
The article below, with the abstract at the following link: ArticleLink
The Relationship between Dietary Fiber Intake and Lung Function in NHANES
In this article, 1921 adults (ages 40-79) from NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys) data from 2009 to 2010 were evaluated.
association between fiber intake and measures of lung function
records of 1,921 adults between the ages of 40 and 79, each of whom participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) during the years 2009 and 2010
In the study, the 1921 participants had FEV1 and FVC measured along with the percent FEV1 and FVC to look at airflow restirciton and obstruciton and apllying GOLD and Spirometry Grade classifications to determine airflow issues. Patients were categorized by grams of fiber consumed to asses change in airway parameters. Subjects in the highest quartile intake of fiber had mean FEV1 and FVC measurements that were 82 mL and 129 mL higher that the lowest quartile of intake (p=0.05 and 0.01, respectively), and mean percent predicted FEV1 and FVC values that were 2.4 and 2.8 percentage points higher (p=0.07 and 0.02, respectively)
Higher fiber intake was associated with a higher percentage of those with normal lung function (p=0.001) and resulted in a significant decline in the proportion of participants with airflow restriction (p=0.001)
Participants consuming more than 17.5 grams of fiber daily comprised the top quartile (and, at 571, the largest number of participants), while those whose diets included less than 10.75 grams each day (360 participants) were in the lower and smallest group
Bottom Line: 17 grams of fiber per day from fruits, vegetables, and legumes had better lung health, compared with those who consumed the least. Fiber decreases inflammation!
Links for Fiber sources:
Fiber-Famished Gut Microbes Linked to Poor Health <<- SciAM article :: Short-chain fatty acids obtained from fiber are of particular interest, as they have been linked to improved immune function, decreased inflammation and protection against obesity.
In a small study of 21 healthy adults with average U.S. fiber intake, one daily fiber snack bar (containing 21 grams of fiber) for three weeks significantly increased the number of Bacteroidetes bacteria and decreased the number of Firmicutes compared with levels before the study or after three weeks of eating fiber-free bars. Such a ratio—of more Bacteroidetes to fewer Firmicutes—is correlated with lower BMI. Fiber supplementation influences phylogenetic structure and functional capacity of the human intestinal micobiome << The study link is here.
As gut microbes are starved of fermentable fiber, some do die off. Others, however, are able to switch to another food source in the gut: the mucus lining. As fiber consumption increased, the activity of genes associated with protein metabolism declined. that this fuel switch had striking consequences in rodents. A group of mice fed a high-fiber diet had healthy gut lining, but for mice on a fiber-free diet, “the mucus layer becomes dramatically diminished
Notes: Yogurt, which is fermented milk, the main bacteria are Streptococcus thermophilus and lactobacillus.
Yogurt bacteria generally last two weeks in our gut. They help break down complex polysacharrides (sugars):
- Xylans: polysaccharides in fruits, vegetables, milk, wheat
- Pectins: found in apples, plums, orange, carrots – pectins are the jelling agents in jams and jellies
- Fructans: found in barley, wheat, garlic, onion, and asparagus
- Bottom line: Get more Fiber!
A new study finds that populations of bacteria in the gut are highly sensitive to the food we digest these changes can happen incredibly fast in the human gut—within three or four days of a big shift in what you eat – and changes gene expression in the gut ability to rapidly change the microbiome would ensure maximum nutrient absorption from even the most unfamiliar foods. In the subjects eating animal products the researchers saw a significant uptick in Bilophila wadsworthia, a bacteria known to contribute to colitis, a variety of inflammatory bowel disease, in mice
Dietary-fat-induced taurocholic acid promotes pathohbiont expansion and colitis <<–Summary : we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milkderived) fat, but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fat, changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes the expansion of a low-abundance, sulphite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia2 . This was associated with a pro-inflammatory T helper type 1 (TH1) immune response and increased incidence of colitis in genetically susceptible Il102/2, but not wild-type mice. These effects are mediated bymilk-derived-fat-promoted taurine conjugation of hepatic bile acids, which increases the availability of organic sulphur used by sulphite-reducing microorganisms like B. wadsworthia. When mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with taurocholic acid, but not with glycocholic acid, for example, a bloom of B. wadsworthia and development of colitis were observed in Il102/2 mice. Together these data show that dietary fats, by promoting changesin host bile acid composition, can markedly alter conditions for gut microbial assemblage, resulting in dysbiosis that can perturb immune homeostasis. e low-fat purified mouse diet LF promoted Firmicutes, but also resulted in a lower abundance of most other phyla, whereas polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fat (PUFA) and saturated (milk-derived) fat diets (MF) resulted in a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and a lower abundance of Firmicutes. Whereas MF (Monounsaturated Fat) and PUFA had similar effects on Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, a significant bloom of a member of the Deltaproteobacteria, B. wadsworthia, was consistently observed only with MF. B. wadsworthia is a sulphite-reducing, immunogenic microbe that is difficult to detect in healthy individuals, but emerges under pathological conditions such as appendicitis and other intestinal inflammatory disorders We find the dependence of B. wadsworthia on diet-induced taurocholic acid intriguing and possibly representative of how certain gut microbes use bile to their advantage. Bile formation is unique to vertebrates, providing the host with the ability to digest and utilize a far greater variety of dietary substrates. Bile also has potent antimicrobial properties that can contribute to the selection or exclusion of many potential gut microbiota. However, several intestinal pathogens, including protozoa such as Giardia, Microsporidia and Cryptosporidia, and bacteria such as B. wadsworthia, H. hepaticus and Listeria monocytogenes, are not only bile-resistant, but highly favoured in the presence of bile21,22, possibly through suppression of symbiotic, commensal microorganisms, allowing pathobionts and pathogens an opportunity to establish a niche. Once established, the by-products of these bacteria, whether H2S or secondary bile acids, can serve as gut mucosal ‘barrier breakers’, allowing for increased immune-cell infiltration and thus acting synergistically with the bacterial antigenspecific immune response to induce tissue damage.
Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome <<– . Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes,Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals , reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease.
Gut Bacteria Might Guide The Workings Of Our Minds <<–found that the connections between brain regions differed depending on which species of bacteria dominated a person’s gut. That suggests that the specific mix of microbes in our guts might help determine what kinds of brains we have — how our brain circuits develop and how they’re wired.
The adoptive transfer of behavioral phenotype via the intestinal microbiota < Review of Evidence of microbiome– brain interactions in mice and focus on the ability to transfer behavioral traits between mouse strains using fecal microbiota transplantation.
Gut Microbiome and Weight << Obese people appear to have less diverse microbes in their guts than lean people.
Gut Microbiota from Twins Discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice In this paper, scientists removed bacteria from the guts of four pairs of human twins in which one was obese and the other was lean. The researchers then transplanted those microbes into the guts of lab mice who didn’t have any of their own microbes. It was found that the mice that got microbes from the obese twins gained more weight and accumulated more fat than those who got microbes from the lean twin, even when the mice ate identical diets. Differences in body composition were correlated with differences in fermentation of short-chain fatty acids (increased in Lean), metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (increased in Obese), and microbial transformation of bile acid species (increased in Lean and correlated with down-regulation of host farnesoid X receptor signaling). Cohousing Lean and Obese mice prevented development of increased adiposity and body mass in Obese cage mates and transformed their microbiota’s metabolic profile to a leanlike state. Transformation correlated with invasion of members of Bacteroidales from Lean (Ln) into Obese (Ob) microbiota. Invasion and phenotypic rescue were diet-dependent and occurred with the diet representing the lower tertile of U.S. consumption of saturated fats and upper tertile of fruits and vegetables but not with the diet representing the upper tertile of saturated fats and lower tertile of fruit and vegetable consumption. Collections generated from human microbiota samples can transmit donor phenotypes of interest (body composition and metabotypes) has a number of implications. Bottom line: Ridaura et al. ( 2) demonstrate that the microbiota from lean or obese humans induces similar phenotypes in mice and, more remarkably, that the microbiota from lean donors can invade and reduce adiposity gain in the obese-recipient mice if the mice are fed an appropriate diet. Analysis showed that members of the Bacteroidetes phylum, particularly Bacteroides spp., could pass from the Lean mice and colonize the Obese mice, suggesting that these bacteria were largely responsible for protection against increased adiposity. Lean twin–derived bacterial strains effectively colonized and ameliorated excess adiposity in Obch mice when the recipients were fed a low-fat, high-fi ber diet. This was not the case when the mice were fed a diet that was high in saturated fat but low in fiber. One of the main activities of the intestinal microbiota is to break down and ferment dietary fibers into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The host absorbs these acids, and humans obtain perhaps 5 to 10% of daily energy requirements from them. Ridaura et al. show that the microbiota in Lean mice produces greater amounts of SCFAs, particularly propionate and butyrate, and digests more of the plant fiber present in the mouse’s diet than the microbiota of Ob mice. Thus, increased weight gain in Ob mice does not result from increased energy harvest. Rather, the finding supports previous studies showing that although SCFAs are a source of energy, they promote leanness by inhibiting fat accumulation in adipose tissue, raising energy expenditure, and enhancing production of hormones associated with feelings of satiety. Other putative mechanisms include a role for the microbiota in metabolizing bile acids, branched-chain amino acids, and acylcarnitines, which have all been linked to either insulin resistance or obesity in humans and mice. Notably, a recent study showed that fecal transplants from lean individuals into obese counterparts improved insulin sensitivity in some obese recipients .
Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. << . We studied the effects of infusing intestinal microbiota from lean donors to male recipients with metabolic syndrome on the recipients’ microbiota composition and glucose metabolism. Subjects were assigned randomly to groups that were given small intestinal infusions of allogenic or autologous microbiota. Six weeks after infusion of microbiota from lean donors, insulin sensitivity of recipients increased (median rate of glucose disappearance changed from 26.2 to 45.3 mol/kg/min; P < .05) along with levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota. Gut bacteria in samples for fecal transfer
Effect of garlic powder on the growth of commensal bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract. << Lactic acid bacteria were found to be more resistant to Garlic powder (GP) compared to the clostridial members of the gut microbiota. While for most bacteria the antimicrobial effect was transient, the lactobacilli showed a degree of resistance to garlic, indicating that its consumption may favour the growth of these beneficial bacterial species in the gut.
Dietary fiber is food for your gut bacteria. Too little fiber in your diet results in the bacteria eating your gut mucins that line your gut. When fed, the bacteria give us nutrients. Certain foods have positive effects. Garlic/Leeks have a lot of INULIN, which feeds actinobacter bacteria that are beneficial to us. Inulin is a prebiotic that feeds good bacteria. Garlic has antimicrobial properties taht help us out by diminishing harmful bacteria. Whole grain sources of fiber, however, are questionable in that they result in elevated levels of Prevotella spp. (Prevotella) that are associated with inflammation and increased incidence of Rheumatoid Arthritis. As for fermented foods, Kimchi, Sauerkraut, and yogurt, the jury is out, but they may be helpful.
Consumption of Fermented Milk Product With Probiotic Modulates Brain Activity – yogurt helps anxiety in some
Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression << Abstract: There is increasing, but largely indirect, evidence pointing to an effect of commensal gut microbiota on the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unknown whether lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus could have a direct effect on neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS in normal, healthy animals. GABA is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. Alterations in central GABA receptor expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, which are highly comorbid with functional bowel disorders. In this work, we show that chronic treatment with L. rhamnosus (JB-1) induced region-dependent alterations in GABAB1b mRNA in the brain with increases in cortical regions (cingulate and prelimbic) and concomitant reductions in expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in comparison with control-fed mice. In addition, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced GABAAα2 mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but increased GABAAα2 in the hippocampus. Importantly, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior. Moreover, the neurochemical and behavioral effects were not found in vagotomized mice, identifying the vagus as a major modulatory constitutive communication pathway between the bacteria exposed to the gut and the brain. Together, these findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut–brain axis and suggest that certain organisms may prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression.
It has been shown that the absence and/or modification of the gut microflora in mice affects the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress , and anxiety behavior, which is important given the high comorbidity between functional gastrointestinal disorders and stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. Evidence suggests that probiotics can modulate the stress response and improve mood and anxiety symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue and irritable bowel syndrome. One such organism is Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1), which has been demonstrated to modulate the immune system because it prevents the induction of IL-8 by TNF-α in human colon epithelial cell lines (T84 and HT- 29). This event was found to be mediated by connections of the gut and brain through the vagus nerve, which if cut, prevented the bacteria from causing emotional changes.
Postnatal microbial colonization programs HPA system for stress response in mice Absatract: Indigenous microbiota have several beneficial effects on host physiological functions; however, little is known about whether or not postnatal microbial colonization can affect the development of brain plasticity and a subsequent physiological system response. To test the idea that such microbes may affect the development of neural systems that govern the endocrine response to stress, we investigated hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) reaction to stress by comparing germfree (GF), specific pathogen free (SPF) and gnotobiotic mice. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone elevation in response to restraint stress was substantially higher in GF mice than in SPF mice, but not in response to stimulation with ether. Moreover, GF mice also exhibited reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression levels in the cortex and hippocampus relative to SPF mice. The exaggerated HPA stress response by GF mice was reversed by reconstitution withBifidobacterium infantis. In contrast, monoassociation with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, but not with its mutant strain devoid of the translocated intimin receptor gene, enhanced the response to stress. Importantly, the enhanced HPA response of GF mice was partly corrected by reconstitution with SPF faeces at an early stage, but not by any reconstitution exerted at a later stage, which therefore indicates that exposure to microbes at an early developmental stage is required for the HPA system to become fully susceptible to inhibitory neural regulation. These results suggest that commensal microbiota can affect the postnatal development of the HPA stress response in mice.
Bygiene The New Paradigm of Bidirectional hygiene Abstract: The pervasive dogma surrounding the evolution of virulence – namely, that a pathogen’s virulence decreases over time to prevent threatening its host – is an archaic assertion that is more appropriately cast as an optimization of virulence cost and benefit. However, the prevailing attitudes underlying practices of medical hygiene and sanitization remain entrenched in these passé ideas. This is true despite the emergence of evidence linking those practices to mounting virulence and antimicrobial resistance in the hospital. It is, therefore, our position that just as the microbe has sought an optimized balance in virulence, so should we seek such an optimized balance in vigilance, complementing warfare with restoration. We call this approach “bygiene,” or bidirectional hygiene.
Gut Dysbiosis in Patients with Anorexia Abstract: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychological illness with devastating physical consequences; however, its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Because numerous reports have indicated the importance of gut microbiota in the regulation of weight gain, it is reasonable to speculate that AN patients might have a microbial imbalance, i.e. dysbiosis, in their gut. In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota of female patients with AN (n = 25), including restrictive (ANR, n = 14) and binge-eating (ANBP, n = 11) subtypes, with those of age-matched healthy female controls (n = 21) using the Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN based on 16S or 23S rRNA–targeted RT–quantitative PCR technology. AN patients had significantly lower amounts of total bacteria and obligate anaerobes including those from the Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, and Bacteroides fragilis group than the age-matched healthy women. Lower numbers of Streptococcus were also found in the AN group than in the control group. In the analysis based on AN subtypes, the counts of the Bacteroides fragilis group in the ANR and ANBP groups and the counts of the Clostridium coccoides group in the ANR group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The detection rate of the Lactobacillus plantarum subgroup was significantly lower in the AN group than in the control group. The AN group had significantly lower acetic and propionic acid concentrations in the feces than the control group. Moreover, the subtype analysis showed that the fecal concentrations of acetic acid were lower in the ANR group than in the control group. Principal component analysis confirmed a clear difference in the bacterial components between the AN patients and healthy women. Collectively, these results clearly indicate the existence of dysbiosis in the gut of AN patients.
Normal Gut Microbiota modulates brain development and behavior <<– found that germ-free, unstressed mice were more active and more willing to explore exposed areas of a maze than mice that had normal gut microbiota. Like Sudo’s group, Heijtz and her colleagues were able to erase those behavioral differences by transplanting normal gut bacteria into the germ-free mice, but only if they did so while the mice were babies—again suggesting that there is a critical window for gut bacteria to establish normal patterns of behavior in its host animal.
Exposure to a Social Stressor Alters the Structure of the intestinal microbiota Abstract: Stressor exposure significantly changed the community structure of the microbiota, particularly when the microbiota were assessed immediately after stressor exposure. Most notably, stressor exposure decreased the relative abundance of bacteria in the genus Bacteroides, while increasing the relative abundance of bacteria in the genus Clostridium. The stressor also increased circulating levels of IL-6 and MCP-1, which were significantly correlated with stressor-induced changes to three bacterial genera (i.e., Coprococcus, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Dorea). In follow up experiments, mice were treated with an antibiotic cocktail to determine whether reducing the microbiota would abrogate the stressor-induced increases in circulating cytokines. Exposure to SDR failed to increase IL-6 and MCP-1 in the antibiotic treated mice. These data show that exposure to SDR significantly affects bacterial populations in the intestines, and remarkably also suggest that the microbiota are necessary for stressor-induced increases in circulating cytokines.
Hanson C, Lyden E, et al. The Relationship between Dietary Fiber Intake and Lung Function in NHANES. Annals ATS. 2016